How can I stop my cat from urinating around the house outside of it’s litter tray?

If your cat is urinating outside of the litter box, it could be due to a variety of reasons such as medical issues, behavioral problems, or a problem with the litter box itself. Here are several strategies to help resolve the issue:

1. **Check for medical issues:** The first step should be to take your cat to a veterinarian to rule out any potential medical problems. Issues such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease, diabetes, or arthritis can cause cats to urinate outside their litter boxes.

2. **Clean the soiled areas:** Cats are often attracted to areas where they've urinated before, so clean these areas thoroughly with an enzymatic cleaner designed for cat urine to discourage repeat behavior. Avoid using cleaners with ammonia, as they smell like urine to cats and may actually attract them to the area.

3. **Evaluate the litter box:** Make sure the litter box is clean, in a quiet, low-traffic area, and is easy for your cat to access. Some cats are particular about the type of litter, so you may need to experiment with different types to find the one your cat prefers. Also, the general guideline is to have one more litter box than you have cats.

4. **Manage stress:** Changes in the environment, new pets or family members, or even rearranged furniture can stress cats, leading to changes in their behavior. Provide a stable, stress-free environment and consider pheromone diffusers which can help calm your cat.

5. **Behavioral training:** Positive reinforcement can be used to encourage your cat to use the litter box. Reward your cat with treats, praise, or petting when it uses the box.

6. **Consult with a professional:** If you've tried the above steps and your cat is still urinating outside the litter box, consider consulting with a professional behaviorist or a veterinarian specializing in behavior. They can provide further insight into the root cause of the problem and suggest targeted interventions.

Remember, punishing your cat for accidents won't resolve the issue and may actually make the problem worse by causing stress or fear. Always approach the situation with patience and understanding.